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  5. Journal of Forest Research, Vol.26, No.5(2021年10月)

Journal of Forest Research, Vol.26, No.5(2021年10月)

種類: 原著論文/Socioecnomics, Planning, and Management

Title: Effects of tree density and size symmetry of competition on diameter growth in the early stages of growth in planted teak (Tectona grandis) trees in northern Thailand

巻頁: J For Res 26 (5): 321-327

題名: タイ北部の若齢チーク植栽木の直径成長に及ぼす樹木密度と競争のサイズ対称性の影響

著者: 櫃間岳,Woraphun Himmapan,八木橋勉,宮本和樹,Tosporn Vacharangkura

所属: 国立研究開発法人 国際農林水産業研究センター

抄録: チーク(Tectona grandis)は材価が極めて高い熱帯産広葉樹の1種である.特にアジアにおける小規模経営のチーク植栽地では,その成長は遅く材質も低く,造林技術の改善が求められている.本研究ではタイ北部のチーク人工林において,造林初期の密度管理が個体の直径成長に及ぼす効果を調べた.植栽10年後かつ初回間伐前の樹木の初期サイズには,地形指標(TI)を用いて推定した土壌水分が影響していた.植栽10年後に強,弱,なし(対照区)の3つの強度で実施した間伐の5年後(植栽15年後)に,間伐履歴,間伐時の直径,TI,隣接木との競争指数の4因子が直径成長に与える影響を一般化線形混合モデルを用いて調べた.間伐後のチーク個体の直径成長には,隣接木との競争指数が負の,間伐時の直径が正の有意な影響を及ぼした.隣接木との競争では,対称的および非対称的な競争状態を検討し2つの指数を算出した.すなわち,対象木より大きなサイズのみを競争相手とみなす非対称的競争と,サイズによらず全ての個体を競争相手とみなす対称的競争である.本研究では対称的競争の指数が直径成長をより正確に予測できた.これらの結果から,チークの同齢人工林における造林初期の個体間競争は対称的であることが示唆された.このような林では,光だけでなく土壌中の水分や養分など地下部の資源を巡る競争も起きている可能性がある.

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13416979.2021.1902598

種類: 原著論文/Socioecnomics, Planning, and Management

Title: Medium and long term effects of logging systems on forest structure and composition in the tropical rainforest of Suriname

巻頁: J For Res 26 (5): 328-335

題名: スリナムの熱帯雨林における伐採システムの違いが森林構造および植物種組成に与える中・長期的影響の比較

著者: Gwendolyn Landburg,Chanella Amatamsir,Bart Muys,Martin Hermy

所属: Anton De Kom University of Suriname, Suriname / University of Leuven, Belgium

抄録: In this study, we compared the medium and long-term effects of logging on tropical rain forest ecosystems in Suriname using reduced impact logging (RIL), CELOS Management System (CMS), and conventional logging (CL) with forest without logging (NAT). In 18 forest plots with different times since logging ended and 9 unlogged forest plots, assessments were conducted on indicators of forest structure and vegetation composition. These indicators were then modelled as a function of management type and plot age. Multivariate ordination was used to visualize forest structure and vegetation composition differences between plots. High vegetation cover in the tree layer was more related to the older RIL and the CL plots, while high vegetation cover in the sapling and seedling layer related more to the CMS and NAT plots. Canopy openness was more related to the NAT, the CMS and the younger RIL plots. Furthermore, the CMS plots, which were logged 30 years ago, still did not reach the basal area of commercially important primary forest species, compared to unlogged forest. Both RIL and CMS plots have a strong presence of secondary species. This study shows the importance of applying the RIL technique correctly and taking forest characteristics and ecological processes into account when developing forest management principles. Forest management systems should also be flexible enough to adapt to area-specific requirements, for example, increasing the rotation cycle if the timber volume is not on the desired level. In this way, both conservation and economic goals are reached.

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13416979.2021.1913305

種類: 原著論文/Socioecnomics, Planning, and Management

Title: Applicability evaluation of tree volume equation for Abies kawakamii (Hayata) Ito based on stem analysis data in Taiwan

巻頁: J For Res 26 (5): 336-343

題名: 台湾における樹幹解析データを用いた台湾冷杉幹材積式の適用性評価

著者: Pei-Hua Li,Min-Chun Liao,Hsy-Yu Tzeng,Yen-Hsueh Tseng,Tian-Ming Yen

所属: National Chung Hsing University, Taiwan

抄録: Abies kawakamii (Taiwan fir) typically constitutes pure forest distributed at 3,100-3,600 m above sea level in Taiwan. Its volume was first investigated in 1963 using aerial photography to identify the growing stock of the forest. In 1973, Taiwan Forestry Bureau established a fir volume estimation equation by considering Taiwan spruce and Taiwan fir stands. However, due to cutting natural forest is not permitted in Taiwan, it was difficult to reconstruct specific volume equation for Taiwan fir. We can only use and collect the uprooted trees as samples for this study by Typhoon Soudelor in 2015. We used these samples for estimation and used the remaining trees for verification and tested the suitability of six equations (models) for Taiwan fir volume estimation. We found that the Schumacher equation was suitable for juvenile trees, and the generalized combined-variable equation was suitable for semi-mature trees. The Schumacher equation (a logarithmic equation) and generalized combined-variable equation demonstrated the better suitability for volume estimation. However, when a juvenile was considered in the estimation, the generalized combined-variable equation provided underestimations. Thus, the Schumacher equation (V = aDbHc) was the better model for our test. The new tree volume estimation equation for Taiwan fir in the Mt. Xue region is presented as follows: V=0.00003663×D1.6693×H1.4003.

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13416979.2021.1927502

種類: 原著論文/Socioecnomics, Planning, and Management

Title: Public perception of forest ecosystem services in Taiwan

巻頁: J For Res 26 (5): 344-350

題名: 台湾における森林生態系サービスに対する一般人の認識に関する分析

著者: Jiunn-Cheng Lin,Chyi-Rong Chiou,Wei-Hsun Chan,Meng-Shan Wu

所属: Taiwan Forestry Research Institute, Taiwan

抄録: Ecosystem service assessment has become an emerging lobbying tool in recent years, relatively, less studies use non-economic methods to explore the society's demand for ecosystem services from the perspective of human values, attitudes and beliefs. With Taiwan household registration records, this study conducted a survey involving mailing out questionnaires to ordinary households as sampling population. The purposes of this study are to understand Taiwanese people's views on forest ecosystem services, and to analyze factors that affect people's perception of the importance of forest ecosystem services. The results show that the respondents believe that soil conservation service is the most important. However, the non-economic cognitive analysis and economic evaluation show that the priority of forest ecosystem services is not consistent. In addition, this study shows that social and economic variables such as gender, occupation, and income have significant differences in different clusters of perception of the importance of ecosystem services. It is recommended that before any policy or protection action is taken in the future, the design should be strengthened to reflect the attitudes and preferences of stakeholders, inclusive of environmental, economic and social values to present the concept of human well-being, so that specific strategies can be more easily formulated to adapt to the actual situation.

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13416979.2021.1911023

種類: 原著論文/Socioecnomics, Planning, and Management

Title:  Enhancing the carbon sequestration of high-elevation Eucalyptus plantations in Sri Lanka for future carbon market activities

巻頁: J For Res 26 (5): 351-357

題名: 将来の炭素市場取引に向けたスリランカ高標高域ユーカリ植林地による炭素隔離効果の強化

著者: W.V. Tharindu Dilan Amarasinghe,寺田徹,山本博一

所属: 東京大学大学院新領域創成科学研究科

抄録: スリランカ高標高域におけるユーカリ植林地には,経済利用のための伐採促進と生態系機能強化のための保全との2つの背反するニーズがある.一方,森林の炭素隔離機能を高めることは,保全を行いながら経済性も追求することに繋がる.ユーカリ植林地においては,樹種の選択と長伐期化が炭素隔離機能の強化に影響する可能性がある.本研究ではEucalyptus grandis(EG)およびEucalyptus microcorys(EM)の2種について,炭素隔離効果およびその経済面での利益を比較した.現地調査はクロノシークエンス法を採用し,異年代に成立したEGおよびEMの一斉林を対象とし,合計36プロットで地上部炭素(AGC)を測定した.独立変数を対数とする線形モデルにより,長伐期に移行した場合のAGCを推定し,25年生のEGのAGCをベースラインとして増加量を評価した.炭素隔離による利益は,炭素の純現在価値と再植林コストとを比較することで示した.結果,ベースラインの炭素量は175.91 t ha-1であり,樹種の差は炭素隔離効果に対して有意な影響を与えなかった.一方,現行比で20%,40%,60%の長伐期化を行うと仮定した場合,それぞれ,13.7%,25.2%,35.2%ほどの炭素隔離効果の強化が可能と推定された.経済面については,仮定したいずれのパターンの長伐期化でも利益は得られるが,伐期が長くなるほど利益は減衰すると推定された.

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13416979.2021.1927501

種類: 原著論文/Socioecnomics, Planning, and Management

Title: Valuation of ecosystem functions and services: Dehdez forest in Iran

巻頁: J For Res 26 (5): 358-366

題名: 生態系機能・サービスの価値評価:イランにおけるDehdez森林の事例から

著者: Ali Shojaie shami,Nabiollah Yarali,Davood Mafi Gholami,Kamran Adeli

所属: University of Shahrekord, Iran

抄録: The Dehdez forest provides various services for both humans and animals, including food and timber production, carbon storage, air purification, wildlife habitation, and socio-cultural benefit. During the last decades, these ecosystems have considerably lost the fauna and flora because of economic expansion in the early 1990s in Iran. Hence, this study valued the main functions of the Dehdez forest. The preservation value of the study area was determined using the conditional valuation method (CVM). The Logit model was applied to determine the willingness to pay, and the parameters of the model were estimated according to the maximum accuracy. The findings revealed that local residents willing to annually pay about USD $ 0.087 million to protect the forest. In terms of rainwater infiltration and running water regulation, total economic value of the ecosystem was estimated about USD $ 6.58 million. The forest could store 12,452 kg nitrogen (N), potassium (K), and phosphorus (P) per hectare, about USD $ 2.17 million per year. The economic value of carbon sequestration and total net value of the productive functions were estimated about USD $ 55.04 and 0.42 million per year, respectively. Taken together, the findings showed that non-market functions constitute 99.3% of the total economic values of the study area, but the market functions do the rest value (i.e. 0.7%).

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13416979.2021.1939921

種類: 原著論文/Silviculture and Plant Sciences

Title:  Effect of sika deer on forest recovery after clear-cutting conifer plantations in warm temperate regions of western Japan: from a field experiment of deer exclosure and planting of Quercus acutissima

巻頁: J For Res 26 (5): 367-376

題名: 西日本の暖温帯域においてニホンジカが針葉樹人工林伐採後の森林の回復に及ぼす影響-防鹿柵とクヌギ植栽を用いた野外操作試験による検証

著者: 藤木大介,坂田宏志

所属: 兵庫県立大学自然・環境科学研究所

抄録: 針葉樹人工林伐採跡後の森林の更新パタンとその影響要因を把握するために、防鹿柵とクヌギ植栽の有無を伴う野外操作試験を実施した。落葉広葉樹二次林と針葉樹人工林が卓越する西日本の暖温帯域で、ニホンジカ(以下、シカ)の生息密度が2~6頭/km2程度の地域を調査対象とした。伐採13年後、天然更新に委ねた調査林分の柵内では、アカメガシワやカラスザンショウ等の先駆性落葉高木種を主体とした植生が成立した。一方、シカの採食を受ける柵外では、先駆性落葉高木種が欠落し、代わりにタラノキを主体とした先駆性落葉低木が優占する林分が成立した。柵内で成立した植生と比較して、柵外で成立した植生は林冠の高さが低く、胸高断面積合計も柵内より著しく小さく、森林構造の発達は悪かった。伐採後にクヌギを植栽した林分では、柵内外ともに伐採13年後にクヌギが高木層に優占する植生が成立した。伐採後に自然侵入した林冠高木種は全ての林分で被食散布型の種子をもつ種群が大半を占めたが、これらの種群はブナ科樹種に比べてシカの採食に対して脆弱であることが示唆された。本調査地域のように人工林伐採跡地に自然侵入する樹木の大半が非ブナ科樹種である場合は、比較的低いシカ密度でも、シカの採食によって正常な森林の発達が阻害されることが示唆された。

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13416979.2021.1920153

種類: 原著論文/Silviculture and Plant Sciences

Title:  Seasonal and hormonal variation during adventitious rhizogenesis in five commercially important bamboo species for production of quality planting material

巻頁: J For Res 26 (5): 377-385

題名: 上質な植栽材料生産のための5つの商業的に重要な竹種における不定根形成時の季節性およびホルモン的変動

著者: Fatima Shirin,Jay Prakash Mishra,Deepti Bhadrawale,Irshad Ali Saudagar,Trilok Gupta,Nanita Berry

所属: Tropical Forest Research Institute, India

抄録: Adventitious rhizogenesis was achieved successfully from mature culms of five commercially important bamboo species. Experiments were conducted to find out the effect of three auxins, namely, Indole-3 acetic acid (IAA), Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and Napthalene acetic acid (NAA) each at 200 ppm concentration in cuttings of three diameter classes (1-2 cm, 2-3 cm and 3-4 cm) in three different seasons on rooting in Bambusa nutans, B. vulgaris var. green, B. tulda, B. bambos and Dendrocalamus strictus. The treatments were evaluated for rooting percentage and root number and root length (cm) after 3 months. Three factor interactions (species x cutting diameter size x auxin type) were significant for rooting percentage in all the seasons. Rooting capacity of cuttings was significantly improved by the application of various auxins and IBA was screened out to be the most effective auxin and spring season was found to be the most effective season resulting in luxuriant root formation in cuttings. In this season, maximum rooting was obtained in B. nutans (76.25%) followed by B. vulgaris var. green (74.50%), B. tulda (63.33%), and D. strictus (35%) with maximum number of roots and root length on treatment of IBA. For B. bambos, 23.33% rooting was observed in summer season along with maximum number of roots and root length. Therefore, spring season followed by summer season using single nodal culm cuttings treated with 200 ppm IBA is recommended for production of quality planting material of these bamboo species.

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13416979.2021.1935548

種類: 原著論文/Forest Health

Title: Development of cultivation method for Leucopaxillus giganteus fruiting bodies in Cryptomeria japonica artificial forests

巻頁: J For Res 26 (5): 386-394

題名: スギ人工林でのLeucopaxillus giganteusの人工栽培

著者: 原田栄津子,多田有人,亀井一郎,森園智浩,松田陽介

所属: 宮崎大学農学部

抄録: 日本では、スギ (Cryptomeria japonica) 林の手入れが放棄され荒廃している。森林から得られるきのこ生産は収益性が高く市場性があるとされるが、通常スギ林では菌類の発生は少ない。しかしながら、三重県では、地方名をスギタケとして地域住民の方から親しまれている白いきのこ数種がスギ林に自生している。これらの特用林産物としての可能性を検討するため、はじめに森林におけるきのこの形態的特徴を観察した。次に、rDNA-ITS領域に基づく系統樹を作成したところ、3種のきのこは、Leucopaxillus giganteus, Aspropaxillus sp., および Clitocybe sp., L. tricolorを含む2つのクレードに分かれた。これら3 種の中で最も嗜好性や機能性が高いきのこである L. giganteus(和名:オオイチョウタケ)に着目し、人工栽培法を検討した。その結果、L. giganteusは、40 kgの菌床培地を埋設した地点から約1 mの範囲にフェアリーリング状に子実体を形成した。L. giganteusの子実体形成は、埋設後5年まで観察された。また、子実体収量は、3.8-13.4 kg/年で、5年間の総収量は、43.2 kgであった。さらに、秋に埋設した培地よりも、春に埋設した培地で子実体収量は増加した。最高収量は、40 kgの菌床培地を林床に埋設した際に得られた。本研究では、日本におけるスギ人工林を利用したL. giganteusの人工栽培方法を確立した。

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13416979.2021.1935550