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  5. Journal of Forest Research, Vol.24, No.4(2019年8月)

Journal of Forest Research, Vol.24, No.4(2019年8月)

種類: 原著論文/Socioeconomics, Planning, and Management
Title: Needs assessment of forestry education in Laos: the case of Souphanouvong University
巻頁: J For Res 24 (4): 201-211
題名: ラオスにおける林業教育のニーズアセスメント: スパーヌウォン大学の事例
著者: Mi Sun Park, Youn Sojin, Youn Yeo-Chang, Beun Donsavanh, Bounxian Phetlumphan
所属: Seoul National University, Korea
抄録: Managing forest resources can be realized when the social conditions, including institutional arrangements and social capacity, are adequately prepared. Human capacity is one of the key conditions required for sustainable forest management. Higher education institutions in developing countries offer forestry programs to build human capacity for sustainable forest management. As society undergoes social and economic changes, forestry professionals must adapt to the appropriate expertise required for new roles. This paper aims to assess the needs of higher education in forestry to revise forestry curriculum at Souphanouvong University towards improving specific and general capacity of forestry professionals in the Laos. The expected expertise of forestry professionals and gaps in forestry curriculum were assessed by a questionnaire survey with university faculty members and forestry governmental officials. Priority in importance and adequacy of curriculum contents necessary for forestry-specific and generic competencies was measured. The study showed the needs of the forestry curriculum at Souphanouvong University in the Laos with the following four areas of competencies: (1) comprehensive forest management considering multiple forest services and global negotiations, (2) forest management planning technology, (3) field skills and teamwork, and (4) problem solving and social relations. The proposed changes of forestry curriculum to meet the needs of forestry higher education can be applied for revising forestry curriculum in Laos and other countries.

種類: 原著論文/Forest Environment
Title:  Seasonal variations in leaf litter substrate-induced respiration and metabolic quotient in a warm temperate broad-leaved forest
巻頁: J For Res 24 (4): 212-218
題名: 暖温帯広葉樹林における落葉の基質誘導呼吸と代謝活性の季節変化
著者: 佐藤開,安宅未央子,檀浦正子,小南裕志
所属: 京都大学・林野庁
抄録: 本研究では,微生物バイオマスと代謝活性の季節変化を明らかにするために、落葉層のL層とF層から落葉サンプルを採取し、微生物バイオマス指標としての基質誘導呼吸(SIR)・代謝活性・C/Nの観測を年間をとおして行った。また、これらの結果をもとに、落葉層分解呼吸の季節変化を引き起こすメカニズムについて考察したSIRは分解初期段階ではC/Nと負の関係、後期段階(C/N<30)では正の関係を示した。代謝活性は分解が進むにつれて減少したことから、微生物相が遷移していると考えられた。また、SIRは同温度条件下であるにもかかわらず春に高く、秋に低いといった季節変化を示した。このようなSIRの季節的なトレンドは分解に伴う利用可能な炭素の減少による影響を受けていると考えられる。さらに、SIRの季節変化は、過去に同試験地で観測された分解呼吸の季節変化と同様のトレンドを示したことから、微生物バイオマスの増減は分解呼吸の季節変化に影響を与えていることが示唆された。

種類: 原著論文/Silviculture and Plant Sciences
Title: Wind affects the growth, root anchorage and tensile strength of Australian pine (Casuarina equisetifolia) seedlings
巻頁: J For Res 24 (4): 219-229
題名: トクサバモクマオウ実生の成長、根系強度および根の引張強度に風が与える影響
著者: Jung-Tai Lee, Lin-Zhi Yen, Ming-Jen Lee
所属: National Chiayi University, Taiwan
抄録: Australian pine (Casuarina equisetifolia Forst.) is an important introduced reforestation species in windbreaks for agroforestry and ecological engineering. Nevertheless, the adaptive mechanism of its roots to withstand wind has not yet been fully investigated. In this study, a wind tunnel test was applied to investigate the effects of wind on growth, root architecture, root anchorage and tensile strength of Australian pine seedlings using root excavation method, pullout test and tensile test. After eight months of treatment with simulated wind load (8.2 m s−1) during the day, the non-wind-stressed control seedlings developed taller height (118%), larger stem base diameter (110%), root biomass (100%), shoot biomass (228%), and longer taproot length (56%) than those of wind-stressed seedlings. Furthermore, the wind-stressed seedlings distributed more roots at the windward side than at the leeward side, whereas the control seedlings distributed their root systems in all directions. The average maximum pullout resistance (0.25 ± 0.11 kN) of the control seedlings was significantly higher than that of the wind-stressed ones (0.08 ± 0.04 kN). Additionally, the control seedlings had significantly higher root tensile strength than the wind-stressed ones in 0-1, 1-2 and 2-5 mm root diameter classes, respectively. These results demonstrate that wind stress significantly decreases growth performance, root anchorage capability and tensile strength of Australian pine seedlings.

種類: 原著論文/Silviculture and Plant Sciences
Title: Microsatellite null alleles affected population genetic analyses: a case study of Maire yew (Taxus chinensis var. mairei)
巻頁: J For Res 24 (4): 230-234
題名: マイクロサテライトのヌルアレルは集団遺伝学的解析に影響したーチュウゴクイチイ(Taxus chinensis var. mairei)の研究事例ー
著者: Xingtong Wu, Libao Wang, Donglin Zhang, Yafeng Wen
所属: Central South University of Forestry and Technology, China
抄録: Microsatellite markers are widely used in population genetic analyses. However, the common occurrence of null alleles and their effect on population parameters such as observed heterozygosity, genetic differentiation coefficient, etc., needs to be addressed. Two microsatellite data sets based on original and redesigned primers were used to assess the effect of null alleles on population genetic analyses of Maire yew (Taxus chinensis var. mairei). When amplified with the original primer set, both loci exhibited the presence of null alleles. Four populations significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium due to heterozygote deficiencies. Once the null alleles were eliminated using new primers, almost all populations were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Average observed heterozygosity values (He) increased from He = 0.197 to He = 0.497 while the fixation index (FIS) decreased from FIS = 0.566 to FIS = −0.060.Genetic differentiation (FST) between populations was more pronounced using the new set of primers (FST = 0.221) compared to the original one (FST = 0.150). When the original data were corrected for the presence of null alleles using the ENA method, global FST was still biased compared to the actual results estimated by the new primer set. Our empirical study on Maire yew populations suggests that null alleles can alter the results of population genetic analyses significantly. This suggests that re-designing new primers or increasing the number of markers may eliminate the effect of the null alleles.

種類: 原著論文/Silviculture and Plant Sciences
Title: Phytohormone involved in salt tolerance regulation of Elaeagnus angustifolia L. seedlings
巻頁: J For Res 24 (4): 235-242
題名: ヤナギバグミ実生の耐塩制御に関係する植物ホルモン
著者: Tingting Zhu, Jing Lin, Mingjing Zhang, Lingyu Li, Chen Zhao, Min Chen
所属: Shandong Normal University, China
抄録: Soil salinization is a serious problem for plant growth worldwide. Understanding the tolerance mechanisms of salt-tolerant plants is essential for development and utilization of saline-alkali land. The salt-tolerant tree species Elaeagnus angustifolia is utilized in landscaping and ecological restoration projects such as afforestation. In this work, we examined the changes in phytohormone levels and the expression of phytohormone-related genes in E. angustifolia seedlings under salt stress. We observed no changes in the biomass, leaf area, and the size of epidermal cells of E. angustifolia seedlings under low levels of NaCl (50 mM); however, when the NaCl concentration was increased, these parameters were significantly reduced. Comparison of the transcriptome data of the species seedlings under 0 and 150 mM NaCl showed that many hormone pathways are involved in the salt-tolerance response. Under salt stress, abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonate (JA) contents increased significantly, whereas the contents of auxin (IAA), gibberellin (GA), cytokinins (CKs), and brassinosteroids (BRs) decreased significantly. We conclude that these changes could be responsible for the growth inhibition and increased salt resistance of E. angustifolia seedlings.

種類: 原著論文/Forest Health
Title: Effects of photoperiod and chilling on diapause induction, intensity and termination in Monochamus alternatus endai (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)
巻頁: J For Res 24 (4): 243-249
題名: Monochamus alternatus endai (鞘翅目:カミキリムシ科)の休眠の誘起,強度,および覚醒に及ぼす光周期と冷却の効果
著者: 富樫一巳
所属: 東京大学大学院農学研究科
マツノマダラカミキリ成虫はマツノザイセンチュウを伝播し,そのセンチュウはマツ材線虫病の病原体である。このカミキリムシの幼虫は終齢で休眠に入る。日本在来のマツノマダラカミキリ亜種M. a. endaiの休眠に及ぼす光周期と温度の影響を明らかにし,随意休眠を示す外国産亜種M. a. alternatusの日本侵入の影響を予測するために,アカマツ小丸太を用いて,M. a. endaiの2系統(36°48ʹN, 136°48ʹEと34°24ʹN, 132°43ʹEで採集)を卵期から成虫の小丸太脱出時まで飼育した。最初の17週間の飼育温度は25℃で,光周期は3光周期(明期暗期8:16時間〔LD 8:16 h〕,LD 12:12 h,LD 16:8 h)のうちの一つであった。その後,10℃,光周期 LD 10:14 hの条件下に8または16週間置いてから,最後に25℃,光周期 LD 12:12 h に移した。最初の17週間の光周期条件に関わらず,すべての幼虫は休眠に入った。このことから不可欠休眠であることが示された。休眠覚醒率は16週間の低温処理で高く(0.908),8週間の低温処理で低かった(0.083)。休眠覚醒はまた低温処理前の光周期,系統,それらの交互作用の影響を受けた。休眠の強度は系統間で違いがあった。休眠の強度は低温処理前の光周期の影響を受けた。もし少数のM. a. alternatusが日本に侵入しても,M. a. endaiの不可欠休眠の前提条件(前報で不可欠休眠が随意休眠より優性であることが証明されている)によって,亜種間交雑が起こってもマツノマダラカミキリの生活環は変化せず,その結果として,日本におけるマツ材線虫病の流行パタンが変化しないと考えられた。

種類: 短報/Socioeconomics, Planning, and Management
Title: The effect of payer units on the willingness to pay in a contingent valuation survey
巻頁: J For Res 24 (4): 250-254
題名: 支払者単位の違いが仮想評価法における支払意志額に及ぼす影響
著者: 藤野正也,栗山浩一
所属: 山梨県富士山科学研究所
抄録: 本研究は支払者単位の違いが,仮想評価法における環境財の供給に対する支払意思額(WTP)に影響を及ぼすことを明らかにした。滋賀県の森林保全を題材とし,支払意志額を尋ねる質問において,回答者を3つのグループに分け,それぞれ支払者単位(世帯,個人,「厳密な」個人)の異なる質問を実施し,各質問におけるWTPを比較した。「厳密な」とは,個人と世帯の支払単位の両方が質問に含まれることを意味する。分析の結果,個人単位のWTPは世帯単位のWTPと有意に異ならなかった。一方で,個人単位のWTPは「厳密な」個人単位のWTPを上回った。経済モデルを用いて理論的な検討を行ったところ,回答者の所得認識と環境財の質の認識が正しいと仮定すると,回答者は世帯あたりのWTPについて質問されたとしても,個人単位のWTPを回答していると考えられた。さらに,世帯の他の構成員が支払う義務を負っているかどうかによって個人単位のWTPに違いが生じると考えられた。このように支払者の単位が異なることでWTPに違いが生じることを「支払者単位バイアス」と定義した。さらに,本研究は支払者単位バイアスにより,世帯単位のWTPを使用して算出された環境財の総額が過小評価されていることを明らかにした。そのため,仮想評価法では支払者単位に留意するべきであると結論づけた。

種類: 短報/Silviculture and Plant Sciences
Title: Soil seed bank composition of three forest stands at different developmental stages in a warm-temperate forest in western Japan
巻頁: J For Res 24 (4): 255-260
題名: 西日本暖温帯林の発達段階の異なる3林分における埋土種子組成
著者: 平山貴美子,山田怜史,乾彰展,高橋将也
所属: 京都府立大学大学院生命環境科学研究科
抄録: 京都市近郊の発達段階の異なる3つの林分(アベマキ・コナラが優占する落葉広葉樹二次林、常緑広葉樹であるコジイが最近優占してきた林、古くからコジイの優占が見られる常緑広葉樹林)において、発芽試験法により木本種の埋土種子組成を調べた。林分の発達段階と埋土種子の密度や種数については明瞭な傾向は認められなかったが、種子の散布型に着目して類別すると、林分の発達段階に伴い風散布型樹木の優占から被食散布型樹木の優占へ変化する傾向が認められた。ツツジ科の樹木に代表される風散布型樹木の埋土種子密度は、繁殖個体の分布に影響をうけ、林分の発達とともに有意に減少していた。一方、被食散布型樹木の埋土種子密度は、林分の発達とともに有意に増加し、一様に分布するようになっていた。暖温帯林の木本種の埋土種子組成において、林分の発達とともに被食散布型の樹木の重要性が高まる可能性が考えられた。

種類: 短報/Silviculture and Plant Sciences
Title: The development of Chinese fir plantations undergo significant changes in soil microbial metabolic function and enzyme activities
巻頁: J For Res 24 (4): 261-265
題名: 中国モミ造林地の発達により土壌微生物の代謝機能と酵素活性は大きく変わる
著者: Chaoqun Wang, Lin Xue, Yuhong Dong, Lingyu Hou, Yihui Wei, Jiaqi Chen, Ruzhen Jiao
所属: Chinese Academy of Forestry, China
抄録: Comprehensive evaluation of soil enzyme activities, microbial community diversity can provide a theoretical basis for the sustainable management of the plantations. In this study, we analyzed soil enzyme activities and the metabolic functional diversity of the microbial communities of Chinese fir plantations aged 3 years, 12 years and 38 years. The results showed that the high-age (38 years old) was beneficial to soil microbial community diversity. The activities of catalase and urease, the average well colour development (AWCD) values for carbon sources used by microbial communities and five diversity indices all showed a gradual increase as trees aged from 3 years to 38 years. Sucrase activity decreased by 109% from 3- to 12-year-old plantations and increased by 139% from 12- to 38-year-old plantations. Overall, the stand age is an important factor for driving changes in soil properties of Chinese fir plantations, and high age may be more conducive to the improvement of soil properties, especially enzyme activities and microbial community diversity, which is of great significance to the screening of key indicators for the establishment of precision evaluation technology in Chinese fir sites.