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  5. Journal of Forest Research, Vol.20, No.5(2015年10月)

Journal of Forest Research, Vol.20, No.5(2015年10月)

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種類: 特集/巻頭言
Title:  Science-Policy Interface and Traditional Knowledge in Social Ecological Production Landscapes and Seascapes (SEPLS)
巻頁: J For Res 20 (5): 421-422
題名: 社会生態学的生産ランドスケープ・シースケープ(SEPLS)における伝統的知識と科学と政策インターフェイス
著者: 香坂玲
所属: 金沢大学大学院人間社会環境研究科


種類: 特集/原著論文
Title:  An overview of the science-policy interface among climate change, biodiversity, and terrestrial land use for production landscapes
巻頁: J For Res 20 (5): 423-429
題名:  気候変動、生物多様性、生産ランドスケープにおける陸域の土地利用と科学と政策インターフェイスの概観
著者: Ian D. Thompson
所属: Canadian Forest Service, Natural Resources Canada (NRCan), Canada
抄録: Global progress in addressing climate change through mitigation and adaptation has been slow, although policy tools are available and most countries now have some climate change policies. Climate change represents a tragedy of the commons caused by all humans, but one for which the damage is slow to accumulate and cannot be readily identified as coming from a single source. As a result, politicians are slow to act. The UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) has had minor achievements over 21 years, although the recent mitigation decision on REDD+ (reducing emissions from forest degradation and deforestation) recognizes the roles that eliminating deforestation and forest degradation and improving agriculture can play in mitigating climate change. The Cancun Agreement also states that, for mitigation to be effective, adaptation is needed. There is a strong body of literature linking biodiversity to ecosystem resilience and goods and services. Any policies dealing with mitigation and adaptation must consider the important role of biodiversity in terrestrial system recovery and management, including forests, agro-forests, and agricultural systems. In production landscapes, policies need to consider the large landscape scale and be cross-sectoral in application, including among forest, agriculture, transportation, energy, and human health sectors. Finally, local ecological knowledge and scientific information should form the basis for such policies. 


種類: 特集/原著論文
Title:  Indigenous traditional knowledge for sustainable development: the biodiversity convention and plant treaty regimes
巻頁: J For Res 20 (5): 430-437
題名: 持続可能な開発のための先住民・伝統的知識;生物多様性条約と食料及び農業のための植物遺伝資源に関する国際条約のレジームより
著者: Marie Claire Cordonier Segger, Freedom-Kai Phillips
所属: International Development Law Organization (IDLO), Canada
抄録: Sustainable development requires establishing a functional balance between socioeconomic development and environmental protection, with traditional knowledge (TK) held by indigenous and local communities (ILCs), including traditional practices of conservation and sustainable use of natural resources, playing an integral role in achieving global sustainable development goals. This paper looks at the inclusion of TK in two principle regimes: the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), and the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA). It explains TK within this context, summarizes key elements of applicable legal frameworks, and analyzes certain legal measures from domestic implementation of the treaties. It suggests that traditional knowledge of ILCs provides a channel for sustainable development which has been nurtured for centuries and should be more effectively integrated into decision-making procedures through greater protections for TK and local empowerment of ILCs for governance and equitable benefit sharing. 


種類: 特集/原著論文
Title: Cultural values and sustainable forest management: the case of Europe
巻頁: J For Res 20 (5): 438-444
題名: 文化価値と持続可能な森林経営;欧州の事例より
著者: Mauro Agnoletti, Antonio Santoro
所属: Laboratory for Landscape and Cultural Heritage (CultLab), Department of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Systems (GESAAF), University of Florence, Italy
抄録: The European continent still has a rich heritage of rural landscapes built up over thousands of years. The UNESCO-sCBD Florence Declaration of 2014, describes it as being predominantly a biocultural landscape, as it assimilates economic, social, cultural, and environmental processes in time and space. This definition also includes the forests, which have been affected by several centuries of human action and are also a part of the European cultural heritage. However, an approach to forest landscapes often employing the same tools used for nature conservation has led to a definition of management tools mostly based on ecological characteristics. The origin of forests and woodlands is rarely interpreted as the result of human activities and protected and managed accordingly. The three pillars on which Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) in Europe are based are ecological values, economic values, and sociocultural values. However, no political resolutions requiring countries to develop strategies and carry out actions for the preservation of cultural forests have been developed so far. The fact that cultural values currently play a limited role in SFM indicates the scant consideration given to the role of culture and history, as well as the lack of a comprehensive landscape approach. Failure to effectively and coherently address culture and history may very well be an emerging weakness that needs to be reconciled, especially now that the landscape approach is proposed on a global scale as a new perspective for sustainable development. One of the consequences of this failure has been the widespread application of an idea of 'naturalness' to places that are not natural, threatening the conservation of the cultural identity of local populations and the historical values of forests, and favoring processes of abandonment and renaturalization. The present paper advocates the practical implementation of existing tools for protecting cultural forest landscapes, such as the MCPFE Guidelines for Social and Cultural Values in SFM and the UNESCO-sCBD Florence Declaration.


種類: 特集/原著論文
Title:  Cultural heritage and biodiversity in the present forest management of the boreal zone in Scandinavia
巻頁: J For Res 20 (5): 445-452
題名: スカンジナビア北方林域の森林管理にみる文化遺産と生物多様性
著者: Jari Parviainen
所属: Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Finland
抄録: Almost all the boreal forests in the Scandinavian peninsula have been influenced by human societies, and, therefore, natural, original forests are very rare. In this article, the interaction between the old traditional forest uses and the present management practices are analysed and discussed. Historical uncontrolled use, slash-and-burn agriculture and overexploitation of forests for saw milling industry led to the establishment of regulations, forest acts, forestry education and forest management plans to prevent devastation during the 19th century. The various uses of forests include their direct land use, preservation of landscapes, building of forest structures, historical sites, human recreation (i.e., establishing mental relationships between people and the forest), forest settlements and rural development. Current boreal forest management is based on a multifunctional approach as applied by a "close-to-nature" management style. This management style is premised upon the notion that "everyman's right" allows them to freely roam the forest on foot or by bicycle and enjoy activities such as pick berries and mushrooms in the forests. Currently being discussed are new approaches regarding commercial use of ecosystems on private land as it relates to the "everyman's right" to enjoy the forest. Within the context of the modern lifestyle, forests help people recover from stress and provide physical inactivity. Research efforts are underway to find bioactive components in the forest for medical products. While the forests are mainly owned by private entities and families, the challenges of the future will be the lack of management, in the means how to reach the owners and how to motivate them.


種類: 特集/原著論文
Title:  Interactions of knowledge systems in shiitake mushroom production: a case study on the Noto Peninsula, Japan
巻頁: J For Res 20 (5): 453-463
題名: キノコ生産における知識システムの相互作用 能登半島の事例研究より
著者: 香坂玲・冨吉満之・齊藤修・橋本禅・Leah Mohammend
所属: 金沢大学大学院人間社会環境研究科
抄録: 石川県におけるキノコ生産について、ポランニー(1966)の概念枠組を援用して、知識体系の関係性と相互作用を分析している。具体的には、比較的結びつきが強い伝統的なコミュニティでの暗黙知と、外部の専門家から伝播されるマニュアル化された明示的知識を対象として、どちらの知識体系のほうがより効率的に高品質のキノコを生産しているのかを検証した。題材としては、能登半島においてブランド化が進められている「のとてまり」を対象とし、全体の生産量と、高付加価値の品質ランクになる頻度を、新規の農家と従来から干しシイタケ等を生産を実施してきた農家を比較した。
  両者の生産量や効率の比較から、従来の農家が持つ知識である伝統的知識が必ずしも生産量の向上や効率に結びつくわけではなく、新しい技術の習得の阻害要因にもなる可能性が示唆された。具体的にはマニュアル化された、のとてまりのキノコ生産に、過去の知識が生産量と効率で貢献しておらず、むしろ、独自の判断での変更や省略化をしてしまう行動などが報告された。


種類: 原著論文/環境
Title:  Canopy transpiration in two Japanese cypress forests with contrasting structures
巻頁: J For Res 20 (5): 464-474
題名: 対照的な林分構造をもつ2つのヒノキ林における林分蒸散量
著者: 鶴田健二・小松光・久米朋宣・篠原慶規・大槻恭一
所属: 京都大学大学院農学研究科
抄録: 林分蒸散量(EC)は林分構造によって林分間で異なる.ヒノキにおけるECの違いを評価するため,林齢が異なり対照的な林分構造を持つ2つの隣接するヒノキ林において, 5ヶ月の間,樹液流計測に基づきECの計測を行った.サクタプロットとヒワダプロットの平均胸高直径はそれぞれ13.5 cm,44.6 cmであり,立木密度はそれぞれ2100本 ha-1,350本 h-1であった.平均ECはサクタプロットにおいて1.3 mm day-1であり,ヒワダプロットにおいて0.7 mm day-1(サクタプロットの53 %)であった.このECの違いは,林分平均樹液流速(JS)と林分合計辺材面積(AS_stand)の両方によるものであった.ヒワダプロットのJSはサクタプロットの69 %であり,ヒワダプロットのAS_standはサクタプロットの75 %であった.JSにおける違いは主に任意の気象条件下におけるJSの基準値の違いによるものであり,気象条件に対するJS応答の違いによるものではなかった.日本の針葉樹人工林における過去の研究は,林分構造による林分間のECの違いは主にAS_standによるものと報告していた.本研究は,必ずしも過去の研究の通りではなく,林分構造による林分間のECの違いを予測する上ではJSの違いも考慮すべきであることを明らかにした.