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  5. Journal of Forest Research Vol 17, No 1 (2012年2月)

Journal of Forest Research Vol 17, No 1 (2012年2月)

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種類: 総説/環境
Title:   Current status and predicted impact of climate change on forest production and biogeochemistry in the temperate oceanic European zone: review and prospects for Belgium as a case study
巻頁: J For Res 17 (1): 1–18
題名: ヨーロッパの海洋性温帯域の森林生産と生物地球化学的循環の現状とそれにおよぼす気候変動の影響予測:ケーススタディとしてベルギーについての概説と予側
著者: Matteo Campioli, Caroline Vincke, Mathieu Jonard, Vincent Kint, Gaston Demarée, Quentin Ponette
所属: Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Belgium
抄録: Reviews of the current statuses of forests and the impacts of climate change on forests exist at the (sub)continental scale, but rarely at country and regional levels, meaning that information on causal factors, their impacts, and specific regional properties is often inconsistent and lacking in depth. Here, we present the current status of forest production and biogeochemistry and the expected impacts of climate change on them for Belgium. This work represents a case study for the temperate oceanic zone, the most important bioclimatic zone in northwestern Europe. Results show that Belgian forests are mainly young, very productive, and have a high C-sequestration capacity. Major negative anomalies in tree vitality were observed in the 1990s and—as result of disturbances—in the last decade for sensitive species as poplars and European beech. The most severe disturbances were caused by extreme climatic events, directly (e.g. storms) or indirectly (e.g. insect outbreaks after a mild autumn with an early/severe frost). Because of atmospheric deposition and soil fertilization (due to the previous use of the land), nutrient stocks of Belgian forests are likely to sustain the future enhancement in productivity which is expected to follow the increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration that will occur in years to come. However, in the long term, such (enhanced) forest production is likely to be limited by nutrient deficiencies at poor sites and by drought for sensitive species such as beech and (particularly) Norway spruce. Drought conditions will likely increase in the future, but adverse effects are expected on a relatively limited number of tree species. The potential impacts of windstorms, insects and fungi should be carefully investigated, whereas fires are less of a concern.

種類: 原著論文/社会経済-計画-経営
Title:   Changes in biodiversity indicators in managed and unmanaged forests in NE Spain
巻頁: J For Res 17 (1): 19–29
題名: 北東スペインの管理森林と非管理森林における生物多様性指標の変化
著者: Olga Torras, Assu Gil-Tena, Santiago Saura
所属: Department d’Enginyeria Agroforestal, Universitat de Lleida, Spain
抄録: Major changes in Mediterranean forests have occurred in recent decades, mainly as a result of the abandonment of traditional activities and population decline in rural areas. In this study, we analyzed the short-term (11-year) evolution of forests in the region of Catalonia (NE Spain) and the role of management, by comparing seven biodiversity indicators estimated from 7,664 plots from the Second and Third Spanish National Forest Inventory. We evaluated the changes in unmanaged and managed stands with different silvicultural treatments, and considered the effect of stand density and land ownership on these dynamics. We found a general naturalization and maturation of forests and an increase in all of the biodiversity indicators investigated during the study period, with the increments being greater in unmanaged than in managed plots. Some types of silvicultural treatments, such as selection cutting or thinning, were shown to be compatible with an increase in the analyzed indicators, and thus were more adequate for a multifunctional management that considers forest production together with the maintenance or improvement of the diversity of forest communities. The increases in shrub species richness and in the number of large-diameter trees after silvicultural treatments were more prominent in dense stands. Private lands presented greater short-term increases than public forests in all biodiversity indicators, except for large-diameter trees. From these results, we concluded that the application of silvicultural treatments can be a key tool to shape and maintain diverse and healthy forest structures in the context of socioeconomic and environmental changes in the Mediterranean region, which may induce potentially excessive densification and homogenization of some forest stands and landscapes.

種類: 原著論文/社会経済-計画-経営
Title:   Drawbacks of decentralized natural resource management: experience from Chilimo Participatory Forest Management project, Ethiopia
巻頁: J For Res 17 (1): 30–36
題名: 分権的な自然資源管理の欠点:エチオピア・チリモ参加型森林管理プロジェクトの経験より
著者: Abrar Juhar Mohammed,井上真
所属: 東京大学大学院農学生命科学研究科
抄録: 本論文ではこれまであまり研究されてこなかったエチオピアにおける分権的な自然資源管理の欠点を明らかにした。まずは,分権政策を謳いながらも中央政府は権限を拡大し,地元住民にコスト負担を強いてきた。地方政府もまた自分たちの利益になるようにルールを変えてきた地元リーダーたちによって支配されてきた。地元住民による自然資源ガバナンスへの悪影響としては,不適切な利用者を排除し適切な資源管理を行う責任を奪ったこと,および便益の偏在により生計状況が悪化した人々が増えたことなどが挙げられる。

種類: 原著論文/環境
Title:  Soil depth and soil water regime in a catchment where tropical dry evergreen and deciduous forests coexist
巻頁: J For Res 17 (1): 37–44
題名: 熱帯乾燥常緑林と落葉林が混在分布する小流域における土壌の深度分布と水分環境
著者: 村田直樹,太田誠一,石田厚,神崎護,Chongrak Wachirinrat,Taksin Artchawakom,佐瀬裕之
所属: 京都大学大学院農学研究科
抄録: 熱帯季節林地帯には同様の気候条件下に常緑林と落葉林が混在して分布する地域が知られているが,これまでどのような要因がこれら森林の分布を規定しているか実証的に明らかにされていない。本研究では林内の土壌水分の年変動および土壌の深度分布を測定し,このような常緑林・落葉林の分布要因を検討した。タイ国サケラート環境研究ステーションにて調査を行なった結果,常緑林は土壌が厚く保水力の大きい地域や,また渓谷部など水の集積しやすい地域に立地していることが明らかとなった。また落葉林では乾期の間土壌水分が枯渇していることが示された。これらのことから土壌の水分保持能力および地形的な水分の利用しやすさの違いが,常緑林と落葉林の分布を規定していると考えられた。

種類: 原著論文/環境
Title:  Analysis of the seasonal characteristics of forest fires in South Korea using the multivariate analysis approach
巻頁: J For Res 17 (1): 45–50
題名: 多変量解析法による韓国の森林火災の季節的特性の解析
著者: Ara Seol, Byungdoo Lee, Joosang Chung
所属: Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, South Korea
抄録: For efficient forest fire management, special precautions are required in dry and strong-wind seasons vulnerable to severe forest fires. To extract the seasonal characteristics of forest fires in South Korea, the statistics over the past 16 years, 1991 through 2005, were investigated. The daily records of the number of fire occurrences, the total area burned and the average burned area per occurrence were examined to identify the seasonal patterns of forest fires using cluster analysis and principal component analysis; the risk of daily fires was also assessed using the ordered logit model. As a result, the fire patterns were classified into five clusters and a general danger index for forest fires was derived from the first principal component, showing relatively large-scaled fire regimes in spring, and frequent small-scaled fire regimes in autumn and winter. In connection with the ordered logit model, the probability for the five ranks of forest fire risk was calculated and the threshold for high-risk fires was detected. As an implementation of the results above, the proper forest fire precautionary period in South Korea was estimated, and consequently October 21 through May 17 was recognized as a dry season at a high risk of forest fires. This period began 10 days earlier in autumn and extended into midwinter (late December and January) as opposed to the existing precautionary period, indicating the need of more cautious forest fire management earlier in autumn and continuing through midwinter.

種類: 原著論文/環境
Title:  Colonization and decomposition of leaf litter by ligninolytic fungi in Acacia mangium plantations and adjacent secondary forests
巻頁: J For Res 17 (1): 51–57
題名: アカシアマンギウム植林と二次林における落葉へのリグニン分解菌による分解と定着
著者: 萩原佑亮,大園享司,太田誠一,Agus Wicaksono,Arisman Hardjono
所属: 京都大学大学院農学研究科
抄録: インドネシアスマトラ島南部のアカシアマンギウム植林と近隣の二次林において,林床の落葉の化学性と重量減少およびリグニン分解菌の定着を調べた。落葉は植林8ヶ所と二次林3ヶ所から採取し,分解途中の落葉についてはリグニン分解の指標となる漂白化した面積を測定し,表層の新規落葉については初期化学性の測定と接種試験に用いた。分解落葉の漂白面積は二次林でアカシアマンギウム植林よりも大きく,新規落葉の窒素濃度はアカシアマンギウム植林で二次林よりも高く,酸不溶性画分(AUR)も同様にアカシアマンギウム植林で二次林よりも高くなる傾向が見られた。分解落葉の漂白面積と新規落葉の窒素濃度には負の相関関係が見られ,これは窒素がリグニン分解菌の定着を抑制したためだと考えられる。リグニン分解菌の接種試験では,新規落葉の重量減少とAUR濃度とには負の相関関係が見られたが,新規落葉の重量減少とAUR濃度は窒素濃度とは相関しなかった。以上より,アカシアマンギウム落葉の高窒素濃度がリグニン分解菌の定着を抑制することが分かったが,高窒素濃度が落葉と落葉中のAURの分解にどのような影響を及ぼすのかは解決すべき疑問として残された。

種類: 原著論文/生物-生態
Title:   Monitoring of xylem embolism and dysfunction by the acoustic emission technique in Pinus thunbergii inoculated with the pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus
巻頁: J For Res 17 (1): 58–64
題名: マツノザイセンチュウを接種したクロマツ木部におけるエンボリズムと通導阻害をアコースティックエミッションで検出する
著者: 黒田慶子
所属: 森林総合研究所関西支所
抄録: マツノザイセンチュウに感染したクロマツの木部では,水分通導阻害が迅速に進行する。本報告では,著しいエンボリズムによる仮道管の排水の時期と進行過程,引き続いて起こる木部の乾燥および病気の進展について論じる。マツの樹幹内部で発生するエンボリズムを,超音波アコースティックエミッション(AE)法を用いて検出した。マツ材線虫病の病原体Bursaphelenchus xylophilusを接種したクロマツ若木の大半では,接種後2週目にAEの発生頻度が急激に上昇した。高頻度のAEが3日間,夜間にも継続して検出された。供試木を採取したところ,空気を含んだ白色の斑点,つまり,排水して通導停止した部位がこの時期に木部内に発生したことがわかった。夜間のAE発生は健康な樹木におけるエンボリズムと異なる原因によると考えられる。このようなAE発生頻度の上昇から,仮道管でエンボリズムが通常より頻繁に起こっていることが推測され,その原因として,木部樹液の張力の低下が関わっているのではないかと考えられた。本報告に先行する研究の結果もこの仮説を支持する。宿主細胞がマツノザイセンチュウの感染に反応して生産し,細胞外に放出した物質は,木部樹液のテンションを低下させる可能性がある。接種後3週目に認められた,AE発生頻度の2度目の上昇期間には,木部の乾燥と針葉の黄変が進行した。その後は針葉の退色が進み,接種から4週目にAE発生頻度が低下した段階では,供試木はほぼ枯死していた。AEをモニタリングすることにより,感染の非常に早い段階で起こった最初の生理的な異常が検出できた。

種類: 原著論文/生物-生態
Title:   Both stem and crown mass affect tree resistance to uprooting
巻頁: J For Res 16 (1): 65–71
題名: 幹重と樹冠重の両方が樹木の根返り抵抗性に影響する
著者: 浦田格,渋谷正人,小泉章夫,鳥田宏行,車柱栄
所属: 北海道大学大学院農学院
抄録: 幹重と樹冠重の両方が樹木の根返り抵抗性に影響し,根返り抵抗性は樹冠重の増加にともない増加するという仮説を検証するため,密度と形状比の異なるアカエゾマツ人工林3林分(林分A, B, Cとする,林齢27~32年生)で樹木の引き倒し試験を行った。樹冠重-幹重アロメトリーと限界根返りモーメント-幹重アロメトリーは林分間で有意に異なり,樹冠重と限界根返りモーメントは林分Cで林分A, Bより有意に大きかった。これらの結果は,我々の仮説を定量的に証明するものであった。樹冠重-幹重および限界根返りモーメント-幹重アロメトリーは各林分で高度に有意であったが,林分分離が生じていた。従って,これらのアロメトリーは各々の林分での樹木の根返り抵抗性の推定には利用できるが,林況や樹形の異なる林分間でまとめたデータに対しての適用は不適切である。限界根返りモーメント-地上部重アロメトリーは,調査したアカエゾマツ3林分間で異ならなかった。つまり,この関係は林分に特有な関係ではなく,樹木の根返り抵抗性を推定するために一般的に用いることのできる関係である。樹木の根返り抵抗性を増大させるためには,アカエゾマツ人工林では疎仕立てが推奨でき,他の針葉樹の人工林でも同様であろう。

種類: 原著論文/生物-生態
Title:   The effect of cold stress on endogenous hormones and CBF1 homolog in four contrasting bamboo species
巻頁: J For Res 17 (1): 72–78
題名: 耐寒性の異なる4種のタケにおける内生ホルモンとCBF1ホモログにおよぼす低温ストレスの影響
著者: Fan Zhang, Xue Qin Wan, Hai Qing Zhang, Guang Li Liu, Ming Yan Jiang, Yuan Zhi Pan, Qi Bing Chen
所属: College of Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, China
抄録: An unusually severe snow disaster in southern China in 2008 exposed variation among different species of bamboo: some species were highly tolerant to low-temperature damage, but some suffered extensive damage or death. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the effects of cold stress on endogenous hormones and the expression of homologs of CBF1 in four bamboo species differing in their tolerance to cold. All four bamboo species were subjected to cold stress with a temperature gradient (10, 5, 0, −5, and −10°C), and each low temperature treatment was maintained for 48 h. Results showed that ABA, GA1, and GA4 were significantly affected by cold stress: ABA increased with cold stress in all species, while GA1 and GA4 reduced with cold stress. ABA levels and the ratio of ABA/(GA1 + GA4) in leaves of Neosinocalamus affinis and Bambusa rigida were both higher than those of hybrid bamboo (Bambusa pervariabilis × Dendrocalamopsis grandis) and Dendrocalamus latiflorus for all treatments, while GA1 and GA4 were conversely lower as compared to the hybrid variety and D. latiflorus. Moreover, CBF1 homolog was up-regulated during cold stress, with higher expression levels in the leaves of cold-tolerant species than cold-sensitive ones. Results revealed that high levels of ABA and CBF1, as well as the ABA/GAs balance, are important in increased plant resistance to cold stress.

種類: 原著論文/生物-生態
Title:   Modelling irregular and multimodal tree diameter distributions by finite mixture models: an approach to stand structure characterization
巻頁: J For Res 17 (1): 79–88
題名: 有限混合モデルによる不規則多峰型直径分布のモデル化:林分構造特性評価へのアプローチ
著者: Andrzej Jaworski, Rafał Podlaski
所属: Faculty of Forestry, Agricultural University of Cracow, Poland
抄録: Tree structural diversity is assessed by modelling stand diameter at breast height (DBH) distribution. The aim of this study was to verify the suitability of a mixture of two- and three-component Weibull and gamma models for describing irregular and multimodal DBH distributions. Investigations were carried out in natural Abies alba Mill. and Fagus sylvatica L. stands, representing the growing-up stage, in the Świętokrzyski National Park (Central Poland) and in the Pieniny National Park (Southern Poland). Sample plots (0.25–0.5 ha in area) were selected from a database used for forest dynamics analysis. The parameters of the mixture model were estimated using maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and a combination of an expectation–maximisation (EM) algorithm with a Newton-type (NT) method. The multistart method (MM) of choosing initial values was used. The DBH distributions in mixed AbiesFagus forests of complex structure were accurately approximated by two- and three-component mixture models. The root mean square error (RMSE) values varied from 3.4515 to 7.6682 for the Weibull mixture and from 3.6457 to 7.1419 for the gamma mixture. The results indicated that the mixture Weibull and gamma models were, in general, equally suitable for modelling irregular and multimodal DBH distributions. Finite mixture models may be used to characterise tree structural diversity, especially in uneven-aged stands of complex structure.

種類: 原著論文/生物-生態
Title:   Variations in the content of stress proteins in the needles of common pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) within an annual cycle
巻頁: J For Res 17 (1): 89–97
題名: ヨーロッパアカマツの針葉におけるストレスタンパク質含有率の季節的変化
著者: N. E. Korotaeva, M. V. Oskorbina, L. D. Kopytova, G. G. Suvorova, G. B. Borovskii, V. K. Voinikov
所属: Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia
抄録: This investigation has focused on the content of heat shock proteins (Hsps) and dehydrins (dhn) in the needles of Pinus sylvestris L. (common pine) depending on environmental conditions and on adaptation of photosynthetic activity. Unlike the case of photosynthetic activity, no relationships have been revealed between variations in environmental conditions over 2 years of observations and variations in Hsps content. It has been discovered that constitutive and stress forms of Hsp70, Hsp60 and dhn are accumulated in the cold season of the year, whereas for Hsp17.6 and Hsp101 this accumulation occurs in the warm season. Seasonal air temperature variations influenced the content of Hsps; variations of temperature and moisture conditions influenced the content of dhn. The supposition is made that accumulation of Hsp70, Hsp60 and dhn in the needles may be the factor and/or the marker of the autumn and spring adaptation of the photosynthetic apparatus, while accumulation of Hsp17.6 and Hsp101 is the marker of summer “heat” adaptation.

種類: 原著論文/生物-生態
Title:  Effect of management and spatial characteristics on plant species richness of Castanea sativa Mill. woodlots in the NW Iberian Peninsula
巻頁: J For Res 17 (1): 98–104
題名: イベリア半島北西部のヨーロッパグリ植林地の植物種多様性におよぼす管理と空間特性の影響
著者: Javier Guitián, Pablo Guitián, Ainhoa Magrach, Carmen Docampo, Paula Domínguez, Luis Guitián
所属: Departamento de Botánica, Universidad de Santiago, Spain
抄録: This paper analyzes the effect of the spatial characteristics and intensity of land use on vascular plant species richness in Castanea (Chestnut) woodlots of the northwestern Iberian Peninsula included in the category “9260 Castanea sativa woodland” (Annex I, DC 92/43 European Community). Digital maps were used to characterize 30 woodlots for which land use intensity was estimated and all plants found were inventoried. The results show that woodlot shape and land use intensity have a significant effect on vascular plant richness and indicator species number. However, an analysis of the interaction between woodlot characteristics and land use intensity suggests that the response of vascular plant species to land use intensity does not exhibit a uniform pattern and that it is modulated by the shape of the woodlots. We conclude that restricting the use of these types of woods to traditional practices must be determined in keeping with the specific characteristics of each woodlot, since the moderate management of Castanea sativa woodlots of the northwest Iberian Peninsula may continue to play an important role to maintaining plant species diversity in this area.

種類: 短報/環境
Title:   Understorey fuel load estimation along two post-fire chronosequences of Pinus halepensis Mill. forests in Central Greece
巻頁: J For Res 17 (1): 105–109
題名: ギリシア中部における火災後のアレッポマツ林の燃焼性下層植生量の経年変化
著者: Dimitris Kazanis, Gavriil Xanthopoulos, Margarita Arianoutsou
所属: Faculty of Biology, University of Athens, Greece
抄録: Pinus halepensis forests are among the forest ecosystems in the Mediterranean Basin most affected by fire. Their distribution across lowland areas, in particular along the wildland–urban interface, increases the need to understand their ecology and responses to fire regime for their effective management. Apart from the extremely flammable tree layer, in several stands of these forests there is an increased fuel load attributed to the well-developed understorey of evergreen sclerophyllous shrubs. Taking into consideration that, in contrast with the long period required for full development of post-fire-regenerating pines, these shrubs resprout vigorously within the first post-fire weeks, it is important to explore the temporal trend of fuel accumulation to determine the risk of a second fire across a burned landscape. Two post-fire chronosequences of, in total, 12 P. halepensis stands were considered for sampling in Central Greece. The first chronosequence corresponds to pine stands characterized by the dominance of evergreen sclerophyllous shrubs in the understorey (Type 1) whereas the second chronosequence corresponds to pine stands where the cover of such shrubs was lower (Type 2). This study helps in understanding the fuel dynamics according to the type of P. halepensis forest stand and to anticipate future biomass growth. The proposed equations are simple tools, enabling land managers to estimate understorey total fuel load easily by visually recording the cover and height of the evergreen sclerophyllous shrub component, to justify understorey fuel reduction measures.

種類: 短報/生物-生態
Title:  Removing aboveground vegetation facilitates survival but slows height growth of spruce saplings in a fenced, degraded sub-alpine forest in central Japan
巻頁: J For Res 17 (1): 110–115
題名: 中部亜高山帯の衰退林で防鹿柵内の植生の地上部除去はトウヒ稚樹の生残を促進するが樹高成長を抑制する
著者: 木佐貫博光,工藤壮史,中井亜理沙
所属: 三重大学大学院生物資源学研究科
抄録: 中部日本大台ヶ原の衰退した亜高山帯林に設置された防鹿柵内の繁茂したササ(Sasa nipponica)原において,植生の地上部除去が,トウヒ(Picea jezoensis var. hondoensis)稚樹の生残と成長に及ぼす影響を調べた。面積0.6 haのササ刈区では各稚樹の根元から半径1 m以内のササの稈を全て刈り取り,面積0.1 haの2つの対照区では稈の刈り取りを行わなかった。全ての稚樹について樹高,樹冠深度,主軸の年伸長量を測定し,稚樹周囲のササの稈高および被度,稚樹上部の光環境を計測した。ササの刈り取りは,翌年の夏まで稈高と被度を抑制し,稚樹の置かれた光環境を改善した。ササの平均桿高よりも小さい稚樹の死亡率は,除去区(0.89%)の方が対照区(5.9%)よりも低かった。ササの刈り取り後,前年のササ被度が高い稚樹ほど樹高成長は低下した。繁茂するササの地上部を完全に刈り取ることは,稚樹の生残を改善したが,伸長成長を抑制した。これは,光強度の急激な増加が原因かもしれない。それゆえ,森林の復旧において,ササ刈り取りの程度を調節することが,トウヒ稚樹の成長を促進するために必要かもしれない。

種類: 短報/生物-生態
Title:   Japanese beech (Fagus crenata) plantations established from seedlings of non-native genetic lineages
巻頁: J For Res 17 (1): 116–120
題名: 遺伝的系統が異なるブナ苗木の植栽実態
著者: 小山泰弘,高橋誠,村内友季,武津英太郎,渡邊敦史,戸丸信弘
所属: 長野県林業総合センター
抄録: 広葉樹人工林に植栽されている苗木の系統を調べるため,長野県のブナを対象として人工林と周辺の天然林で葉緑体DNAハプロタイプを比較した。調査は,長野県内の分布域全体から天然林30集団159個体を採取し,人工林は,県下各地に植栽された20集団136個体を用い,葉緑体DNAの2領域(trnL-trnFとtrnK)で,6つの一塩基多型と4つの挿入欠失によりハプロタイプを決定した。その結果,長野県内の天然林からは明瞭な地理的な構造を持ったB,D,E,Fの4種類のハプロタイプが検出された。一方,人工林では,AとBの2種類のハプロタイプが検出され,どちらも日本海側の多雪地域に分布する系統だった。今回の結果から,長野県中南部の乾燥地域では,天然林の系統と異なる長野県北部の多雪地域由来の苗木が植栽されており,不適当な系統の苗を植えることによる影響が危惧された。

種類: 総説/環境
Title:   Current status and predicted impact of climate change on forest production and biogeochemistry in the temperate oceanic European zone: review and prospects for Belgium as a case study
巻頁: J For Res 17 (1): 1–18
題名: ヨーロッパの海洋性温帯域の森林生産と生物地球化学的循環の現状とそれにおよぼす気候変動の影響予測:ケーススタディとしてベルギーについての概説と予側
著者: Matteo Campioli, Caroline Vincke, Mathieu Jonard, Vincent Kint, Gaston Demarée, Quentin Ponette
所属: Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Belgium
抄録: Reviews of the current statuses of forests and the impacts of climate change on forests exist at the (sub)continental scale, but rarely at country and regional levels, meaning that information on causal factors, their impacts, and specific regional properties is often inconsistent and lacking in depth. Here, we present the current status of forest production and biogeochemistry and the expected impacts of climate change on them for Belgium. This work represents a case study for the temperate oceanic zone, the most important bioclimatic zone in northwestern Europe. Results show that Belgian forests are mainly young, very productive, and have a high C-sequestration capacity. Major negative anomalies in tree vitality were observed in the 1990s and—as result of disturbances—in the last decade for sensitive species as poplars and European beech. The most severe disturbances were caused by extreme climatic events, directly (e.g. storms) or indirectly (e.g. insect outbreaks after a mild autumn with an early/severe frost). Because of atmospheric deposition and soil fertilization (due to the previous use of the land), nutrient stocks of Belgian forests are likely to sustain the future enhancement in productivity which is expected to follow the increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration that will occur in years to come. However, in the long term, such (enhanced) forest production is likely to be limited by nutrient deficiencies at poor sites and by drought for sensitive species such as beech and (particularly) Norway spruce. Drought conditions will likely increase in the future, but adverse effects are expected on a relatively limited number of tree species. The potential impacts of windstorms, insects and fungi should be carefully investigated, whereas fires are less of a concern.

種類: 原著論文/社会経済-計画-経営
Title:   Changes in biodiversity indicators in managed and unmanaged forests in NE Spain
巻頁: J For Res 17 (1): 19–29
題名: 北東スペインの管理森林と非管理森林における生物多様性指標の変化
著者: Olga Torras, Assu Gil-Tena, Santiago Saura
所属: Department d’Enginyeria Agroforestal, Universitat de Lleida, Spain
抄録: Major changes in Mediterranean forests have occurred in recent decades, mainly as a result of the abandonment of traditional activities and population decline in rural areas. In this study, we analyzed the short-term (11-year) evolution of forests in the region of Catalonia (NE Spain) and the role of management, by comparing seven biodiversity indicators estimated from 7,664 plots from the Second and Third Spanish National Forest Inventory. We evaluated the changes in unmanaged and managed stands with different silvicultural treatments, and considered the effect of stand density and land ownership on these dynamics. We found a general naturalization and maturation of forests and an increase in all of the biodiversity indicators investigated during the study period, with the increments being greater in unmanaged than in managed plots. Some types of silvicultural treatments, such as selection cutting or thinning, were shown to be compatible with an increase in the analyzed indicators, and thus were more adequate for a multifunctional management that considers forest production together with the maintenance or improvement of the diversity of forest communities. The increases in shrub species richness and in the number of large-diameter trees after silvicultural treatments were more prominent in dense stands. Private lands presented greater short-term increases than public forests in all biodiversity indicators, except for large-diameter trees. From these results, we concluded that the application of silvicultural treatments can be a key tool to shape and maintain diverse and healthy forest structures in the context of socioeconomic and environmental changes in the Mediterranean region, which may induce potentially excessive densification and homogenization of some forest stands and landscapes.

種類: 原著論文/社会経済-計画-経営
Title:   Drawbacks of decentralized natural resource management: experience from Chilimo Participatory Forest Management project, Ethiopia
巻頁: J For Res 17 (1): 30–36
題名: 分権的な自然資源管理の欠点:エチオピア・チリモ参加型森林管理プロジェクトの経験より
著者: Abrar Juhar Mohammed,井上真
所属: 東京大学大学院農学生命科学研究科
抄録: 本論文ではこれまであまり研究されてこなかったエチオピアにおける分権的な自然資源管理の欠点を明らかにした。まずは,分権政策を謳いながらも中央政府は権限を拡大し,地元住民にコスト負担を強いてきた。地方政府もまた自分たちの利益になるようにルールを変えてきた地元リーダーたちによって支配されてきた。地元住民による自然資源ガバナンスへの悪影響としては,不適切な利用者を排除し適切な資源管理を行う責任を奪ったこと,および便益の偏在により生計状況が悪化した人々が増えたことなどが挙げられる。

種類: 原著論文/環境
Title:  Soil depth and soil water regime in a catchment where tropical dry evergreen and deciduous forests coexist
巻頁: J For Res 17 (1): 37–44
題名: 熱帯乾燥常緑林と落葉林が混在分布する小流域における土壌の深度分布と水分環境
著者: 村田直樹,太田誠一,石田厚,神崎護,Chongrak Wachirinrat,Taksin Artchawakom,佐瀬裕之
所属: 京都大学大学院農学研究科
抄録: 熱帯季節林地帯には同様の気候条件下に常緑林と落葉林が混在して分布する地域が知られているが,これまでどのような要因がこれら森林の分布を規定しているか実証的に明らかにされていない。本研究では林内の土壌水分の年変動および土壌の深度分布を測定し,このような常緑林・落葉林の分布要因を検討した。タイ国サケラート環境研究ステーションにて調査を行なった結果,常緑林は土壌が厚く保水力の大きい地域や,また渓谷部など水の集積しやすい地域に立地していることが明らかとなった。また落葉林では乾期の間土壌水分が枯渇していることが示された。これらのことから土壌の水分保持能力および地形的な水分の利用しやすさの違いが,常緑林と落葉林の分布を規定していると考えられた。

種類: 原著論文/環境
Title:  Analysis of the seasonal characteristics of forest fires in South Korea using the multivariate analysis approach
巻頁: J For Res 17 (1): 45–50
題名: 多変量解析法による韓国の森林火災の季節的特性の解析
著者: Ara Seol, Byungdoo Lee, Joosang Chung
所属: Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, South Korea
抄録: For efficient forest fire management, special precautions are required in dry and strong-wind seasons vulnerable to severe forest fires. To extract the seasonal characteristics of forest fires in South Korea, the statistics over the past 16 years, 1991 through 2005, were investigated. The daily records of the number of fire occurrences, the total area burned and the average burned area per occurrence were examined to identify the seasonal patterns of forest fires using cluster analysis and principal component analysis; the risk of daily fires was also assessed using the ordered logit model. As a result, the fire patterns were classified into five clusters and a general danger index for forest fires was derived from the first principal component, showing relatively large-scaled fire regimes in spring, and frequent small-scaled fire regimes in autumn and winter. In connection with the ordered logit model, the probability for the five ranks of forest fire risk was calculated and the threshold for high-risk fires was detected. As an implementation of the results above, the proper forest fire precautionary period in South Korea was estimated, and consequently October 21 through May 17 was recognized as a dry season at a high risk of forest fires. This period began 10 days earlier in autumn and extended into midwinter (late December and January) as opposed to the existing precautionary period, indicating the need of more cautious forest fire management earlier in autumn and continuing through midwinter.

種類: 原著論文/環境
Title:  Colonization and decomposition of leaf litter by ligninolytic fungi in Acacia mangium plantations and adjacent secondary forests
巻頁: J For Res 17 (1): 51–57
題名: アカシアマンギウム植林と二次林における落葉へのリグニン分解菌による分解と定着
著者: 萩原佑亮,大園享司,太田誠一,Agus Wicaksono,Arisman Hardjono
所属: 京都大学大学院農学研究科
抄録: インドネシアスマトラ島南部のアカシアマンギウム植林と近隣の二次林において,林床の落葉の化学性と重量減少およびリグニン分解菌の定着を調べた。落葉は植林8ヶ所と二次林3ヶ所から採取し,分解途中の落葉についてはリグニン分解の指標となる漂白化した面積を測定し,表層の新規落葉については初期化学性の測定と接種試験に用いた。分解落葉の漂白面積は二次林でアカシアマンギウム植林よりも大きく,新規落葉の窒素濃度はアカシアマンギウム植林で二次林よりも高く,酸不溶性画分(AUR)も同様にアカシアマンギウム植林で二次林よりも高くなる傾向が見られた。分解落葉の漂白面積と新規落葉の窒素濃度には負の相関関係が見られ,これは窒素がリグニン分解菌の定着を抑制したためだと考えられる。リグニン分解菌の接種試験では,新規落葉の重量減少とAUR濃度とには負の相関関係が見られたが,新規落葉の重量減少とAUR濃度は窒素濃度とは相関しなかった。以上より,アカシアマンギウム落葉の高窒素濃度がリグニン分解菌の定着を抑制することが分かったが,高窒素濃度が落葉と落葉中のAURの分解にどのような影響を及ぼすのかは解決すべき疑問として残された。

種類: 原著論文/生物-生態
Title:   Monitoring of xylem embolism and dysfunction by the acoustic emission technique in Pinus thunbergii inoculated with the pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus
巻頁: J For Res 17 (1): 58–64
題名: マツノザイセンチュウを接種したクロマツ木部におけるエンボリズムと通導阻害をアコースティックエミッションで検出する
著者: 黒田慶子
所属: 森林総合研究所関西支所
抄録: マツノザイセンチュウに感染したクロマツの木部では,水分通導阻害が迅速に進行する。本報告では,著しいエンボリズムによる仮道管の排水の時期と進行過程,引き続いて起こる木部の乾燥および病気の進展について論じる。マツの樹幹内部で発生するエンボリズムを,超音波アコースティックエミッション(AE)法を用いて検出した。マツ材線虫病の病原体Bursaphelenchus xylophilusを接種したクロマツ若木の大半では,接種後2週目にAEの発生頻度が急激に上昇した。高頻度のAEが3日間,夜間にも継続して検出された。供試木を採取したところ,空気を含んだ白色の斑点,つまり,排水して通導停止した部位がこの時期に木部内に発生したことがわかった。夜間のAE発生は健康な樹木におけるエンボリズムと異なる原因によると考えられる。このようなAE発生頻度の上昇から,仮道管でエンボリズムが通常より頻繁に起こっていることが推測され,その原因として,木部樹液の張力の低下が関わっているのではないかと考えられた。本報告に先行する研究の結果もこの仮説を支持する。宿主細胞がマツノザイセンチュウの感染に反応して生産し,細胞外に放出した物質は,木部樹液のテンションを低下させる可能性がある。接種後3週目に認められた,AE発生頻度の2度目の上昇期間には,木部の乾燥と針葉の黄変が進行した。その後は針葉の退色が進み,接種から4週目にAE発生頻度が低下した段階では,供試木はほぼ枯死していた。AEをモニタリングすることにより,感染の非常に早い段階で起こった最初の生理的な異常が検出できた。

種類: 原著論文/生物-生態
Title:   Both stem and crown mass affect tree resistance to uprooting
巻頁: J For Res 16 (1): 65–71
題名: 幹重と樹冠重の両方が樹木の根返り抵抗性に影響する
著者: 浦田格,渋谷正人,小泉章夫,鳥田宏行,車柱栄
所属: 北海道大学大学院農学院
抄録: 幹重と樹冠重の両方が樹木の根返り抵抗性に影響し,根返り抵抗性は樹冠重の増加にともない増加するという仮説を検証するため,密度と形状比の異なるアカエゾマツ人工林3林分(林分A, B, Cとする,林齢27~32年生)で樹木の引き倒し試験を行った。樹冠重-幹重アロメトリーと限界根返りモーメント-幹重アロメトリーは林分間で有意に異なり,樹冠重と限界根返りモーメントは林分Cで林分A, Bより有意に大きかった。これらの結果は,我々の仮説を定量的に証明するものであった。樹冠重-幹重および限界根返りモーメント-幹重アロメトリーは各林分で高度に有意であったが,林分分離が生じていた。従って,これらのアロメトリーは各々の林分での樹木の根返り抵抗性の推定には利用できるが,林況や樹形の異なる林分間でまとめたデータに対しての適用は不適切である。限界根返りモーメント-地上部重アロメトリーは,調査したアカエゾマツ3林分間で異ならなかった。つまり,この関係は林分に特有な関係ではなく,樹木の根返り抵抗性を推定するために一般的に用いることのできる関係である。樹木の根返り抵抗性を増大させるためには,アカエゾマツ人工林では疎仕立てが推奨でき,他の針葉樹の人工林でも同様であろう。

種類: 原著論文/生物-生態
Title:   The effect of cold stress on endogenous hormones and CBF1 homolog in four contrasting bamboo species
巻頁: J For Res 17 (1): 72–78
題名: 耐寒性の異なる4種のタケにおける内生ホルモンとCBF1ホモログにおよぼす低温ストレスの影響
著者: Fan Zhang, Xue Qin Wan, Hai Qing Zhang, Guang Li Liu, Ming Yan Jiang, Yuan Zhi Pan, Qi Bing Chen
所属: College of Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, China
抄録: An unusually severe snow disaster in southern China in 2008 exposed variation among different species of bamboo: some species were highly tolerant to low-temperature damage, but some suffered extensive damage or death. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the effects of cold stress on endogenous hormones and the expression of homologs of CBF1 in four bamboo species differing in their tolerance to cold. All four bamboo species were subjected to cold stress with a temperature gradient (10, 5, 0, −5, and −10°C), and each low temperature treatment was maintained for 48 h. Results showed that ABA, GA1, and GA4 were significantly affected by cold stress: ABA increased with cold stress in all species, while GA1 and GA4 reduced with cold stress. ABA levels and the ratio of ABA/(GA1 + GA4) in leaves of Neosinocalamus affinis and Bambusa rigida were both higher than those of hybrid bamboo (Bambusa pervariabilis × Dendrocalamopsis grandis) and Dendrocalamus latiflorus for all treatments, while GA1 and GA4 were conversely lower as compared to the hybrid variety and D. latiflorus. Moreover, CBF1 homolog was up-regulated during cold stress, with higher expression levels in the leaves of cold-tolerant species than cold-sensitive ones. Results revealed that high levels of ABA and CBF1, as well as the ABA/GAs balance, are important in increased plant resistance to cold stress.

種類: 原著論文/生物-生態
Title:   Modelling irregular and multimodal tree diameter distributions by finite mixture models: an approach to stand structure characterisation
巻頁: J For Res 17 (1): 79–88
題名: 有限混合モデルによる不規則多峰型直径分布のモデル化:林分構造特性評価へのアプローチ
著者: Andrzej Jaworski, Rafał Podlaski
所属: Faculty of Forestry, Agricultural University of Cracow, Poland
抄録: Tree structural diversity is assessed by modelling stand diameter at breast height (DBH) distribution. The aim of this study was to verify the suitability of a mixture of two- and three-component Weibull and gamma models for describing irregular and multimodal DBH distributions. Investigations were carried out in natural Abies alba Mill. and Fagus sylvatica L. stands, representing the growing-up stage, in the Świętokrzyski National Park (Central Poland) and in the Pieniny National Park (Southern Poland). Sample plots (0.25–0.5 ha in area) were selected from a database used for forest dynamics analysis. The parameters of the mixture model were estimated using maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and a combination of an expectation–maximisation (EM) algorithm with a Newton-type (NT) method. The multistart method (MM) of choosing initial values was used. The DBH distributions in mixed Abies–Fagus forests of complex structure were accurately approximated by two- and three-component mixture models. The root mean square error (RMSE) values varied from 3.4515 to 7.6682 for the Weibull mixture and from 3.6457 to 7.1419 for the gamma mixture. The results indicated that the mixture Weibull and gamma models were, in general, equally suitable for modelling irregular and multimodal DBH distributions. Finite mixture models may be used to characterise tree structural diversity, especially in uneven-aged stands of complex structure.

種類: 原著論文/生物-生態
Title:   Variations in the content of stress proteins in the needles of common pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) within an annual cycle
巻頁: J For Res 17 (1): 89–97
題名: ヨーロッパアカマツの針葉におけるストレスタンパク質含有率の季節的変化
著者: N. E. Korotaeva, M. V. Oskorbina, L. D. Kopytova, G. G. Suvorova, G. B. Borovskii, V. K. Voinikov
所属: Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia
抄録: This investigation has focused on the content of heat shock proteins (Hsps) and dehydrins (dhn) in the needles of Pinus sylvestris L. (common pine) depending on environmental conditions and on adaptation of photosynthetic activity. Unlike the case of photosynthetic activity, no relationships have been revealed between variations in environmental conditions over 2 years of observations and variations in Hsps content. It has been discovered that constitutive and stress forms of Hsp70, Hsp60 and dhn are accumulated in the cold season of the year, whereas for Hsp17.6 and Hsp101 this accumulation occurs in the warm season. Seasonal air temperature variations influenced the content of Hsps; variations of temperature and moisture conditions influenced the content of dhn. The supposition is made that accumulation of Hsp70, Hsp60 and dhn in the needles may be the factor and/or the marker of the autumn and spring adaptation of the photosynthetic apparatus, while accumulation of Hsp17.6 and Hsp101 is the marker of summer “heat” adaptation.

種類: 原著論文/生物-生態
Title:  Effect of management and spatial characteristics on plant species richness of Castanea sativa Mill. woodlots in the NW Iberian Peninsula
巻頁: J For Res 17 (1): 98–104
題名: イベリア半島北西部のヨーロッパグリ植林地の植物種多様性におよぼす管理と空間特性の影響
著者: Javier Guitián, Pablo Guitián, Ainhoa Magrach, Carmen Docampo, Paula Domínguez, Luis Guitián
所属: Departamento de Botánica, Universidad de Santiago, Spain
抄録: This paper analyzes the effect of the spatial characteristics and intensity of land use on vascular plant species richness in Castanea (Chestnut) woodlots of the northwestern Iberian Peninsula included in the category “9260 Castanea sativa woodland” (Annex I, DC 92/43 European Community). Digital maps were used to characterize 30 woodlots for which land use intensity was estimated and all plants found were inventoried. The results show that woodlot shape and land use intensity have a significant effect on vascular plant richness and indicator species number. However, an analysis of the interaction between woodlot characteristics and land use intensity suggests that the response of vascular plant species to land use intensity does not exhibit a uniform pattern and that it is modulated by the shape of the woodlots. We conclude that restricting the use of these types of woods to traditional practices must be determined in keeping with the specific characteristics of each woodlot, since the moderate management of Castanea sativa woodlots of the northwest Iberian Peninsula may continue to play an important role to maintaining plant species diversity in this area.

種類: 短報/環境
Title:   Understorey fuel load estimation along two post-fire chronosequences of Pinus halepensis Mill. forests in Central Greece
巻頁: J For Res 17 (1): 105–109
題名: ギリシア中部における火災後のアレッポマツ林の燃焼性下層植生量の経年変化
著者: Dimitris Kazanis, Gavriil Xanthopoulos, Margarita Arianoutsou
所属: Faculty of Biology, University of Athens, Greece
抄録: Pinus halepensis forests are among the forest ecosystems in the Mediterranean Basin most affected by fire. Their distribution across lowland areas, in particular along the wildland–urban interface, increases the need to understand their ecology and responses to fire regime for their effective management. Apart from the extremely flammable tree layer, in several stands of these forests there is an increased fuel load attributed to the well-developed understorey of evergreen sclerophyllous shrubs. Taking into consideration that, in contrast with the long period required for full development of post-fire-regenerating pines, these shrubs resprout vigorously within the first post-fire weeks, it is important to explore the temporal trend of fuel accumulation to determine the risk of a second fire across a burned landscape. Two post-fire chronosequences of, in total, 12 P. halepensis stands were considered for sampling in Central Greece. The first chronosequence corresponds to pine stands characterized by the dominance of evergreen sclerophyllous shrubs in the understorey (Type 1) whereas the second chronosequence corresponds to pine stands where the cover of such shrubs was lower (Type 2). This study helps in understanding the fuel dynamics according to the type of P. halepensis forest stand and to anticipate future biomass growth. The proposed equations are simple tools, enabling land managers to estimate understorey total fuel load easily by visually recording the cover and height of the evergreen sclerophyllous shrub component, to justify understorey fuel reduction measures.

種類: 短報/生物-生態
Title:  Removing aboveground vegetation facilitates survival but slows height growth of spruce saplings in a fenced, degraded sub-alpine forest in central Japan
巻頁: J For Res 17 (1): 110–115
題名: 中部亜高山帯の衰退林で防鹿柵内の植生の地上部除去はトウヒ稚樹の生残を促進するが樹高成長を抑制する
著者: 木佐貫博光,工藤壮史,中井亜理沙
所属: 三重大学大学院生物資源学研究科
抄録: 中部日本大台ヶ原の衰退した亜高山帯林に設置された防鹿柵内の繁茂したササ(Sasa nipponica)原において,植生の地上部除去が,トウヒ(Picea jezoensis var. hondoensis)稚樹の生残と成長に及ぼす影響を調べた。面積0.6 haのササ刈区では各稚樹の根元から半径1 m以内のササの稈を全て刈り取り,面積0.1 haの2つの対照区では稈の刈り取りを行わなかった。全ての稚樹について樹高,樹冠深度,主軸の年伸長量を測定し,稚樹周囲のササの稈高および被度,稚樹上部の光環境を計測した。ササの刈り取りは,翌年の夏まで稈高と被度を抑制し,稚樹の置かれた光環境を改善した。ササの平均桿高よりも小さい稚樹の死亡率は,除去区(0.89%)の方が対照区(5.9%)よりも低かった。ササの刈り取り後,前年のササ被度が高い稚樹ほど樹高成長は低下した。繁茂するササの地上部を完全に刈り取ることは,稚樹の生残を改善したが,伸長成長を抑制した。これは,光強度の急激な増加が原因かもしれない。それゆえ,森林の復旧において,ササ刈り取りの程度を調節することが,トウヒ稚樹の成長を促進するために必要かもしれない。

種類: 短報/生物-生態
Title:   Japanese beech (Fagus crenata) plantations established from seedlings of non-native genetic lineages
巻頁: J For Res 17 (1): 116–120
題名: 遺伝的系統が異なるブナ苗木の植栽実態
著者: 小山泰弘,高橋誠,村内友季,武津英太郎,渡邊敦史,戸丸信弘
所属: 長野県林業総合センター
抄録: 広葉樹人工林に植栽されている苗木の系統を調べるため,長野県のブナを対象として人工林と周辺の天然林で葉緑体DNAハプロタイプを比較した。調査は,長野県内の分布域全体から天然林30集団159個体を採取し,人工林は,県下各地に植栽された20集団136個体を用い,葉緑体DNAの2領域(trnL-trnFとtrnK)で,6つの一塩基多型と4つの挿入欠失によりハプロタイプを決定した。その結果,長野県内の天然林からは明瞭な地理的な構造を持ったB,D,E,Fの4種類のハプロタイプが検出された。一方,人工林では,AとBの2種類のハプロタイプが検出され,どちらも日本海側の多雪地域に分布する系統だった。今回の結果から,長野県中南部の乾燥地域では,天然林の系統と異なる長野県北部の多雪地域由来の苗木が植栽されており,不適当な系統の苗を植えることによる影響が危惧された。